The emergence of Italian plaquettes in France and their use by the enamelers of Limoges, especially Jean Penicaud II and the Master KIP.
Examined is the discovery of an engraved rock crystal evidently serving as the master prototype for a quantity of late 15th century bronze plaquettes. A relationship of the rock crystal with Lorenzo de’ Medici is drawn by way of a relationship with its subject: a Head of Pan. Also discussed is the crystal’s reproduction in a sketch by a young Michelangelo and finally surveyed is the curious loss of the object’s meaning in exchange for what would become a universally vilified image of Attila the Hun.
Discussions on the influence of Giovanni Pietro di Birago’s illuminations on mid-16th century reverse painted rock crystals and the alignment of a pax with a Spanish rather than Italian origin.