Head of Pan: Lorenzo, Michelangelo, Attila and a lost plaquette prototype

Examined is the discovery of an engraved rock crystal evidently serving as the master prototype for a quantity of late 15th century bronze plaquettes. A relationship of the rock crystal with Lorenzo de’ Medici is drawn by way of a relationship with its subject: a Head of Pan. Also discussed is the crystal’s reproduction in a sketch by a young Michelangelo and finally surveyed is the curious loss of the object’s meaning in exchange for what would become a universally vilified image of Attila the Hun.

Reverse Painted Rock Crystals in the Manner of Giovanni Pietro di Birago and observations regarding a Pax at the Palazzo Madama

Discussions on the influence of Giovanni Pietro di Birago’s illuminations on mid-16th century reverse painted rock crystals and the alignment of a pax with a Spanish rather than Italian origin.